Aspergillus niger is a fungus and one of the most common species of this genus.
This mold causes a disease called “black mold” in certain fruits and vegetables such as grapes, apricots, onions and peanuts, as well as ordinary food contamination. Aspergillus niger is found in almost all the soils around the world, and its presence is more common in the home and home. The colonies are black and may be confused with the Stachybotrys mushroom (the species called “black mildew”).
Some species of Aspergillus niger produce strong mycotoxins called ochratoxins; however, there are some other contradictions, claiming that the report is based on the false identification of fungal species. Recent evidence suggests that some A. niger species, in addition to acetoxin, also produce isoflavone orobol.
A. niger is a subspecies of Nigri in the Aspergillus Circumdati species. Nigri contains 15 subtypes related to black spores, which may be mistaken for A. niger, including A. tubingensis, A. foetidus, A. carbonarius and A. awamori. A number of similar morphological species have been described in 2004 by Samson and colleagues.
In 2007, the strain of ATCC 16404 Aspergillus niger was classified as A. brasiliensis. In the US and Europe, they usually use this type throughout the pharmaceutical industry.
Aspergillus niger makes black and white mold on onions and ornamental plants. Infection of onion seedlings by A. niger can be systemic and this condition only occurs when the proper conditions for growth of the fungus are normal. A. niger creates a very common post-harvest disease onion, where black molds can be seen between onion scales. This fungus also causes the disease in peanuts and grapes.
Human and animal diseases
A. niger produces less disease in humans and animals than other species of Aspergillus. And only in very rare cases, humans may develop illness. Usually, the disease is a serious pulmonary problem called aspergillosis. Often, the disease is seen in workers and workers whose work is related to horticulture and fruit harvesting, as well as people exposed to dust, because Dust can be a source of Aspergillus spores. Black spores of this fungus are reported even in Egyptian mummies, and can cause people who are associated with them to be ill.
A. niger is one of the most common causes of auto-infection (ear fungal infections), which can cause pain, temporary hearing damage and, in severe cases, damage to the ear canal and the tympanic membrane.
How to culture this fungus
A. niger usually grows well on a common culture medium such as a PDA.
Industrial use of A. niger
Aspergillus niger cultivates many foods for industrial production. Different strains of A. niger are used in the industrial preparation of citric acid (E330) and gluconic acid (E574) and are acceptable by the World Health Organization for daily intake . A. niger fermentation is known by the US Food and Drug Administration under the federal law on food, medicine and cosmetics “Safe and Healthy” (GRAS).
Many of the enzymes produced by the Aspergillus niger industrial fermentation are produced. For example, A. niger glucoamylase (P69328) is used to produce high fructose corn syrup and pectinases (GH28) are used to ferment apples and wine. The alpha-galactosidase (GH27), an enzyme that breaks down a portion of complex sugars, is a component of Beano and other products that reduce bloating. Another use for A. niger in the biotechnology industry is the production of various magnetic isotope macromolecules for NMR analysis. Aspergillus niger is also used to extract the glucose oxidase enzyme (P13006), which is used in the design of glucose dose due to its high dependence on β-D-glucose.
Aspergillus niger is growing from a gold mining site containing Saiano-metal complexes such as gold, silver, copper, iron and zinc. Mushrooms also play an important role in solubilizing heavy metal sulfides. A. niger fungus is bound to 10% dry weight to silver. The biological absorption of silver occurs through the exchange of sorbitol Ca (II) and Mg (II), so A. niger is one of the natural silver absorbers and extracts of silver.