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Rhizopus rot of fruit

Rhizopus rot of fruit disease is often present in all areas where apples are grown. Pathogenic fungi are more likely to attack injured fruits, frozen or those that are over-ripe and stored outdoors.
Symptoms
Initially, brown and soft spots appear on the fruit in rhizopus rot of apple. At 25 degrees Celsius, the fungus grows high and develops rapidly in the fruit, eventually becoming watery, dark, and soft. If you remove the fruit skin at the spots, the leachate will come out and give it a sour smell. The fungal mycelia will appear white on the decayed and crushed portions, and black spores will form on the surface.
Cause of disease
The fungus responsible for fruit rot disease is called Rhizopus stolonifer and has been reported on apples and pears in Iran. This fungus is synonymous with R. nigrican Ehrenb. The asexual reproductive organs are sporangiospore which is produced in sporangia. Its sexual reproductive organs are called zygospores. Zygospores consist of colonies of two sexes that are compatible.
Life cycle
There are asexual spores of Rhizopus rot in various places, such as fruit boxes, harvesting and moving locks, warehouses and even in the garden. Asexual spores germinate on infected and injured fruits and cause infection. Healthy fruits next to infected fruits can be directly infected by this fungus, thus causing a bulk rot.
A fight
۱٫ Preventing apple rot by removing the primary inoculum of Rhizopus rot of fruit and spraying the fruit trees before the fruits are harvested to kill pests that injure or pierce the fruit.
۲٫ Picking the fruits in the proper handling stage and carefully and carefully moving to prevent them from being injured and also immersed in special fungicides.
۳٫ Rhizopus stolonifer mycelia are unable to grow at temperatures below 4.5 ° C, so they can be effectively controlled by timely and rapid cooling of the fruits after being harvested.

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